Five hundred years later, there are some – particularly in the indigenous communities of Latin America – who are seeing this as new era of economic conquest, one with significant environmental and social consequences. This time, the new "conquerors" are Canadian mining companies. These "new conquistadors" have generated enormous wealth for Canada and the countries in which they do business. Canadian mining companies often have "sustainable development" programs that provide a range of opportunities for locals and attempt to offset the negative environmental effects of mining. However, the economic, environmental and social changes these mines bring to rural communities have generated considerable debate in Latin America. This project is intended as a catalyst for discussion.