In September 2000, the United Nations hosted a meeting of the largest number of world leaders to ever gather in one spot. And they came to chart a new course for this troubled and controversial world body, which recently marked its 50th anniversary. For Canadians, the meeting was especially significant when the discussions focused on the past and future roles of the UN in peacekeeping; a concept and a practice that was given a historic impetus by former prime minister Lester B. Pearson, who won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in the field. How effective has the UN actually been in stabilizing international affairs or in stopping civil wars? What is the difference between peacekeeping and peacemaking and how have the two at times overlapped? From the historic UN debate on the issue profiled in this report, we examine how these world leaders attempt to deal with these questions as well as others, and to bolster and improve the way in which this UN strives to achieve its global mandate.